Understanding gambling addiction

For machine gamblers, it’s not whether they win or lose — it’s how much they play the game.

Odds are that you imagine gamblers as people simply trying to get lucky and win a big payoff. But when Natasha Schull, an associate professor in MIT’s Program in Science, Technology, and Society (STS), began researching the lives of gamblers in Las Vegas, she found a very different motivation at work.

Take, for instance, Mollie, a mother and hotel worker who compulsively played video poker, running through her paychecks in two-day binges, and cashing in her life insurance to get more money to play. “The thing people never understand is that I’m not playing to win,” Mollie told Schull. Instead, Mollie’s goal was to enter a state of total gambling immersion: “to keep playing — to stay in that machine zone where nothing else matters.”

Now, in her new book, Addiction by Design, published this month by Princeton University Press, Schull delves into the lives of such gamblers. In particular, she looks at compulsive machine gamblers — not the folks playing social games around a table, such as poker, but those who play alone at electronic slot-machine terminals. For a small percentage of the population, these games become an all-consuming pursuit, a way of shutting out the world and its problems for long, long stretches of time.

But eventually, most compulsive machine gamblers recognize the hold that high-tech gaming has come to have over them. As one gambling addict told Schull: “I could say that for me the machine is a lover, a friend, a date, but really it’s none of those things; it’s a vacuum cleaner that sucks the life out of me, and sucks me out of life.”

Schull thinks this point — that for machine gamblers, it’s not about the money, but the escape into the “zone,” as Mollie and other gamblers call it — has eluded politicians who wrangle over casino openings and expansions throughout the United States, where more than 30 states currently have some form of legalized machine gambling.

“It’s a real stumbling block for policymakers to understand that,” Schull says. She adds: “Everyone believes the harm is how much money is spent, and that what’s driving the compulsive gamblers is a desire to make money. But … the ‘zone’ is really what’s driving this experience. The idea of winning money falls away when you get to the point of addiction.”

We’ve all visited the ‘zone’ — but few people live there

Schull’s book is the culmination of a long process of research: She started delving into the subject in the early 1990s, when she wrote an undergraduate thesis at the University of California at Berkeley on the ways casino architecture helped drive customers to gamble more. By the late 1990s, she had moved to Las Vegas to conduct research on compulsive gamblers, talking to a vast number of addicts and industry executives, and even working in a gambling-addiction treatment program. 

The phenomenon Schull wound up studying is both one that most of us can relate to — we’ve all tuned out the world while online, or playing games — and one that gets carried to extremes in gambling addicts.

“This experience of being in the zone is one we’ve all had, whether it’s eBay auctions or sitting on the train compulsively using our phones,” says Schull, an anthropologist by training.

On the other hand, “disordered gambling,” as the American Psychiatric Association now calls gambling addiction, seems to afflict just 1 to 2 percent of Americans, according to studies.

Yet according to a long string of studies, and as Schull notes in her book, those people can generate 30 to 60 percent of revenues for the machine-gambling business. In Addiction by Design, Schull chronicles not only the nature of gambling addiction, but also the ways in which the gaming industry has deployed sophisticated technology to create machines that are extraordinarily compelling for players.

The newest video slot machines, for instance, deliver a frequent stream of small wins rather than infrequent large jackpots. Why? Because after immersion in electronic slot machines, many users resemble one gambler Schull studied at length, who “felt irritated when she won, because it took time for the jackpot to go up, so she had to sit there — and her flow was interrupted,” Schull says. “It’s the flow of the experience that people are after. Money to them is a means to sit there longer, not an end. They don’t win a jackpot and leave, they win a jackpot and sit there until it’s gone.”

Talking to gamblers themselves, Schull notes, provided “great insight” into the phenomenon of gambling addiction. “There were no real dupes. There was no single person who tried to tell me, ‘I have a system, I have it figured out.’ These were jaded, savvy, aware people. They were not sitting there expecting to win.”

Meanwhile, of gambling industry employees, such as game designers, Schull says, “You’ve got really intelligent guys focused on making technology work, and they don’t think about the larger consequences.” She adds: “Not one of these people is sitting there saying, ‘How can we addict people?’ They are talking about how to increase profits … [and they] insulate themselves ethically from the outcome as best they can.”

‘People lose track of time and space’

Scholars who have read the book praise its exploration of the psyche of gamblers. Tanya Luhrmann, an anthropologist at Stanford University, lauds the way it “captures the intense relationship between humans and machines that is so much part of what people call the addiction experience.” Luhrmann adds that until reading Addiction by Design, she “hadn’t realized gambling was so much about the experience” of playing, rather than winning.

Schull’s research had attracted considerable attention well in advance of the book’s publication: She has appeared on “60 Minutes” and testified about the subject in front of the Massachusetts state legislature.

Yet Schull holds off on offering specific regulatory remedies concerning the way games should be structured. In some countries, legislators have suggested slowing down the pace of electronic slot machines to stretch out payoffs and water down the intensity of the experience — a technological fix Schull calls “wrongheaded” because it may simply encourage gamblers to play for longer periods using an equal amount of money.

Machine gambling, Schull emphasizes, “is not like buying a movie ticket or making a purchase at a store and then going home. This is rapid, fast, continuous spending where people lose track of time and space, and their ability to make decisions shifts over the course of the encounter.”

Instead, Schull asks, “Given the nature of this product and this interface, shouldn’t policymakers, state legislatures, be learning a little bit more about how this product affects people?” She adds: “I think my work is part of an emerging conversation.”

Topics: Books and authors, Faculty, Gaming, Social sciences, Technology and society, Policy, Politics, Casinos, Gambling, Addiction


Great work ! hopefully someday it will change the heart of the worldwide ruling class.

It seems this problem has expanded globally, for example in Mexico, the industry not only enslaves individuals or fosters cartel wars over gambling territories and profits. It complements the cluster of addiction-related and terror business models (drugs, gambling, porno industry, illegal arms, political bribery and corruption,etc).

Hopefully someday social conscience will arrise and forbid this terrible business (people enslaving) activities.

Please visit this link to see the narcoterrorist attack to a casino in Mexico. We do not want this to repeat nowhere.


Perhaps a new movement needs to start, like the green movement towards a healthier ecosystem. We need a "New Color" for a healthier social atmosphere.

If Schull is right, and her research does sound persuasive, it seems there could be an effective intervention. Just provide the addict with an up-to-date video slot machine that costs nothing to play. There could be treatment centers where these are made available, and a psychologist may be able to program them in a way which gradually weans the person off the addiction.

Casinos often pay lip service to the concept that compulsive gamblers should be helped; if they are really serious, they could even set up a private room somewhere with these no-pay machines where they could escort people identified as problem gamblers.

Finally a researcher who takes the time to really get to know the victims of the highly addictive and destructive EGMs. Had Natasha Schull's book titled Addiction by Design been available when I first became aware of my severe addiction to EGMs, I would have saved 10 years of research, hundreds of thousands of dollars and all the stress, guilt and shame I experienced while crawling my way out of the hell hole I was trapped in. Attending GA meetings,my government's treatment program, private counseling, extensive self discovery and reading books on addiction did nothing to end my constant and overpowering urge to go play EGMs. What did END it for good was discovering the true nature of EGMs which is so well explained in Natasha's book. I highly recommend this book to all players of EGMs and their loved ones and especially to all governments and charity group who profit from these UNCONSCIONABLE FUNDRAISERS.

Gisele Jubinville


and author of DISMISSED

Finally someone understands my gambling problem.

Hi, I found this issue most intriguing. if its not about the money though this problem could transcend to any form of gaming:

Gamers are unknowingly robed of their lives.

they all involve positive reinforcement.

there are billions of people world-wide addicted to gaming. The problem is working bottom up through the global community and will be a complete generational problem in a few decades.

Thanks to this great introduction to the work of N. Schull, I bought the book and it was revealing. In Italy, we are expereiencing an invasion of slot machines, that can be found everywhere (hospitals, bars, shopping centres, ...). Someone estimates that there are now 400.000 slot and VLT installed. Since the phenomenon of gambling is new to us, there is not much research on the subject of addiction. We are just wakening up to the disaster that is being prepared. I translated in italian your introductory note on my personal facebook page, hoping that other italians might buy and read the book!

A possible legislative intervention could be a ban on charging compulsive gamblers when they lose at the slot machines. I am sure that we could create predictive models to identify the profile of these people (especially since loyalty cards are so heavily used). Once a person is identified as a compulsive gambler based on his/her previous history, he or she should be sheltered from excessive losses. They should be reimbursed for their losses, excluding flat charges for taking up a spot at the slot machines. This would change the incentives for casinos, they would be forced on diversifying their client base, and finding more random players.

The Addiction Heroin and Slot Machines Share

For the same reason “heroin” is illegal, should “slot machines” also be illegal? After all, both share the exact same social characteristics brought on by uncontrollable addiction:

· They are highly addictive and easy to get hooked on;
An addicted person will do anything to get more (it becomes a compulsion); and
As a consequence of the addiction both often boosts crime and is notorious for
wrecking lives.

Heroin as you know was not always illegal and was use commercially. In fact, the name “heroin” was coined by the Bayer Pharmaceutical Company which starting in 1898 and continuing till 1910 promoted heroin as being a non-addictive cough medicine, among other uses.

Congress did not ban the manufacture, importation or sale of heroin until 1924. Then in 1970 Congress passed the Controlled Substance Act listing heroin as a Schedule I substance, subsequently making it a crime to possess.

Slot Machines were introduced in a similarly innocent manner. They were a simple mechanical device with reels that offered the player a chance at winning something and with a certain degree of control over the outcome would also leave the player in tacked with his or her dignity.

As discussed in greater detail in my book VLM: Today’s Slot Machine, a must read in adjunction with this article (www.vlmtodayslotmachine.com), on today’s slot
machines the reels have been replaced with video screens and there in no degree
of control the player has over the outcome of the game.

It is no secret that the gaming industry employs psychologist and similar people to help design these machines. Nor is it a secret that today’s slot machines
are designed to be additive.

According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), heroin can increase feelings of pleasure by altering activity in the brain’s limbic system, which controls emotions. The way in which heroin does this is by increasing levels of the naturally-occurring neurotransmitter dopamine, which modulates the brain’s ability to control emotion—perceive reward reinforcement.

Thus, the reason that heroin and other dopamine-producing drugs are so addictive is that they have the ability to constantly fill a need for more dopamine.

Whereas one of the key functions of the neurotransmitter is to create feelings of pleasure, heroin and other drugs flood the brain with dopamine and condition us to expect artificially high levels of the neurotransmitter. Over time the user’s brain requires more dopamine than it can naturally produce, and it becomes dependent on the drug which never actually satisfies the need it has created.

“In regards to gambling, recent research has discovered that it’s not only winning that enhances dopamine transmission in the [brain’s] limbic system, but
missing the mark or almost getting the reward has an even greater effect than
winning the jackpot.” The Chemistry of Addictions, Documentary Storm, December 5, 2012 (documentarystorm.com/the-chemi....

“What happens is that our brain loves to find and predict patterns, but when it
focuses or becomes fixated on trying to predict something as inherently unpredictable as a slot machine, it becomes addicted to gambling.” Id.

“Psychologists have long recognized the addictive properties of gambling—its power to draw people into a cycle of dependence that can empty bank accounts and ruin lives. Games that are a curiosity or occasional recreation for many Americans are for others an irresistible lure that gradually comes to command their lives. In too many cases, the seeding and nurturing of that addiction is no accident.” Caught in the Gambling Zone, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, September 17, 2012 (www.RWJFLeaders.org); see also Slot Machine Science: How Casinos Get You to
Spend More Money, Brad Plumer, August 7, 2014 (www.vox.com/2014/8/7/.../slot-....

“In her new book, Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas, [Natasha Dow] Schüll, a cultural anthropologist and associate professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, describes how the gaming industry has tailored its electronic gambling machines, and indeed everything about the experience of playing them, to lock players into a trance-like, mechanical rhythm that blocks out everything else around them.” Id.

“The dynamic is no secret to the industry. ‘Our best customers are not interested in entertainment—they want to be totally absorbed, get into a
rhythm,’ one game designer told Schüll.” Id.

“Gambling industry leaders insist that addiction resides in people, not
inanimate machines. Yet they invest a great deal of money and energy in the effort to influence consumers’ behavior through technology design. To take the title of one panel at an industry trade show, their aim is to ‘Build a Better Mousetrap.’” Slot Machines Are Designed to Addict, The New York Times, October 10, 2013.

Another industry that has acted similarly and eventually got caught at it is the tobacco industry.

“Similar to other addictive drugs like cocaine and heroin, nicotine increases levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which affects the brain pathways that control reward and pleasure. Drug Facts: Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products, National Institute of Drug Abuse.

The fallout from the $23.6 billion dollar verdict against R.J. Reynolds tobacco company over tobacco addiction, should make the gaming industry think about what they are doing. But like the tobacco industry, the gaming industry refuses to acknowledge that one of its products, i.e., slot machines may be hazardous to your health. Each year thousands of more people are becoming addicted to slot machines, while the casinos continue to be promoted them as harmless inanimate machines. All while lives are being destroyed as a result today’s not so innocent slot machines.

So, the question is asked. For the same reason “heroin” is illegal, should “slot machines” also be illegal?

“‘Slots are for losers’ he spat, and then, coming to his sense, begged me to consider that an off-the-record comment.” I.G.T. Slot Machine Designer to a New York Times reporter.

Back to the top