• "Local Warming" is one element in the "Fireplace" room, which displays the evolution of heating systems.

    Photo: Giulia Bruno

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  • Beams of infrared radiation follow each person in the room, creating personal climates.

    Beams of infrared radiation follow each person in the room, creating personal climates.

    Photo: Aaron Nevin

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  • "Local Warming" exhibition at the 14th Venice Architecture Biennale.

    Photo: Giulia Bruno

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Achieving energy efficiency with “Local Warming”

"Local Warming" is one element in the "Fireplace" room, which displays the evolution of heating systems.

MIT researchers develop a system that creates personalized climates around individuals — an alternative to heating entire buildings.

MIT researchers have developed a system that creates personalized climates around individuals. The project, called “Local Warming,” uses WiFi-based motion tracking and ceiling-mounted dynamic heating elements to target a single person and create a precise personal climate around occupants of a building. As a result, each person is kept comfortable while the space around them is maintained at a lower temperature — saving energy. The Local Warming technology is making its debut at a biannual architectural festival that opens on June 7, 2014, the 14th Venice Architecture Biennale.

"Today, a huge amount of energy is wasted on heating empty offices, homes, and partially occupied buildings," says Professor Carlo Ratti, director of the MIT Senseable City Lab, which led the project. "The technologies underlying Local Warming could address this by synchronizing climate control with human presence, vastly improving the energy efficiency of buildings.”

As a visitor enters a room, the person’s location and trajectory are spotted using a new WiFi-based location tracking technology developed by Professor Dina Katabi and her team in the MIT Center for Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, housed in MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. This information is then transmitted in real time to an array of dynamic heating elements positioned in a grid near the ceiling. Each element is composed of a servo-motor that changes direction, a bulb to generate infrared radiation, a cold mirror, and other optics to create focused beams.

“Infrared heat is emitted to generate what are essentially spotlights of warmth centered on people a few meters away,” explains Leigh Christie, the project engineer. “This ensures ultimate comfort, while improving the overall energy efficiency."

Miriam Roure, the lead researcher on the project and a research fellow in the Senseable City Lab, noted that the first commercial application of this technology might be responsive outdoor heaters that warm people as they move through exterior or semi-covered spaces. Local Warming systems could then be installed in large lobbies or industrial lofts — spaces that are often sparsely occupied. As the technology further develops, it could allow each person to define the specific temperature they prefer via smartphone.

“With a dynamic system like Local Warming in place, buildings may not need to waste as many resources on climate control,” says Roure. “Local Warming allows participants to engage with their climate directly and to enact a new type of efficient, localized climate control.”

Local Warming is a main component of the Central Pavilion at the Venice Architecture Biennale, which runs from June 7 to Nov. 23, 2014. The theme of this year’s festival is “Fundamentals” — core elements of architecture and their progression through history. Fittingly, Local Warming is installed in a room focused on the “Fireplace.”

“The earliest heating technology was the fire pit, a fixed domestic element that people gathered around. Since then, climate control has been unmoored, with the development of pipes and thermostats. But today, man no longer needs to seek heat — heat can seek man,” says Matthew Claudel, also a fellow in the Senseable City Lab and the project curator. “Local Warming is a new approach in the broader history of climate systems.”

This research is sponsored by the MIT Energy Initiative (initially through a seed grant) and the energy utility company ENEL.

Topics: Energy efficiency, Sustainability, Architecture, Heat


Or, you could put on a sweater.

Sounds like all the radiant heat sources are all in the ceiling. So your head and shoulders will feel warm, but your feet will still be cold. Like a fireplace, you will feel the heat only on the side facing the fire.

How well does it work with large numbers of people in one room?

Will the heat follow you into the corridors, stairwells, and elevators?

The idea of a localized warming is a trivial on. Recall motion sensors switching lights.

The project ran by MIT looks to me therefore as a gross over engineering. The simple "light-switched-by-motion sensor" approach is sufficient for heating purpose as well in a situation like a single person in a house spends a few hours in one room, then a few hours in another and so on. If MIT is trying to accomodate a faster dynamics, as in a moving person, it will be just a waste of energy and resources to heat up the chain of rooms he is passing through and spending a few minutes in each.

I agree, a sweater would be a more efficient solution.

what if its too hot...

This is something I have often thought about. Why do you need to keep your house warm? All that matters is that your body is warm. I do not switch on my heating during the winter. I never had the impression it affected my health. There are some issues. You can wear more clothes but it can be difficult to keep your hands warm. It is difficult to read a book in bed when your hands are freezing cold. Showering and washing is unpleasant. You can get condensation, but I think that is more a problem if you heat some rooms and not others.

Perhaps the 'Sensible City Lab' should rename itself the 'Totally Impractical City Lab' and stop wasting MIT's seed fund money. The energy expended in manufacturing, maintaining and keeping clean this system will far outweigh any heating savings gained over the life of the equipment.

We do that now, but without all the gadgets and electric heat.

Have MIT discovered a very cheap energy source, I think not. Your group are getting a very nice hand out for supposing to invent something that is not yet avaiable that is free energy. Should their resources be better put finding gear that is practical & more able to allow we pleebs a better way to help mankind. I am all for puttlng on extra clothing to keep self warm, it also saves energy.

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